Electronic Component Testing
For those of the TL;DR meme, click here to jump to the components table
There are obviously numerous components used in the various projects, each of which requires some knowledge to utilise appropriately. As pointed-out on many a web site/discussion forum, in the first instance ALWAYS READ THE DATASHEET to familiarise yourself with the component. The following tables provide lists of the various components I have used and corresponding links to background information, problems and solutions I have found, including the relevant datasheets.
The numerous components that can be used in the construction of an electronic circuit appear daunting when first starting out. I found the following classification scheme to be of benefit in organising and approaching the learning process. There doesn't appear to be a "definitive" electronic component classification scheme, but it is generally accepted that components may be classified broadly as either passive or active (1). I also think it is useful at this "first level" to make the further distinction of having a "electro-mechanical" category (2).
Passive components are those which have electrical characteristics generally independent (obviously within "limits") of the applied voltage. This category is therefore mainly the ubiquitous resistors, capacitors and inductors comprising the majority of circuit components. Associated "variable" components derived from these include potentiometers, variable capacitors, inductors (chokes or coils) and transformers.
Active components can be defined as those "which can produce power gain, that is, the output signal has higher power than the input signal", or "rely on a source of energy (usually from the DC circuit) and usually can inject power into a circuit". Transistors and integrated circuits of every type meet this loose definition, and diodes use the same basic semiconductor technology as transistors so they are usually considered as being active devices.
Finally, electromechanical components can carry out electrical operations by using moving parts or by using electrical connections. This category includes switches, relays, piezoelectric devices, crystals, fuses, fans, etc etc. Each of these three "top" level categories is sub-divided further generally by either technology and/or materials used in the construction of the component.
This then leads to the following approximate classifications:
- Active Components
- Transistors (BJT, FET, MOSFET, Thyristors [SCR, TRIAC])
- Diodes (PN Junction, Zener, Schottky, DIAC)
- Integrated Circuits
- Opto-Electronics (Opto-Coupler, LED's, Opto-Interruptor)
- Visual Display (LCD, LED 7 Segment)
- Passive Components
- Resistors (Potentiometer, Thermistor)
- Electro-Mechanical Components
- Switches (Rotary, Reed, Limit, Thermostat, Matrix Keypad)
- Circuit Protection Devices (Metal Oxide Varistor, Poly-Switch, TVS)
- Transducers/Sensors (Piezoelectric, Ultrasonic, Peltier)
The following table provide a list of the various components I have physically used and corresponding links to background information, problems and solutions I have found, including the relevant datasheets. Click on the title of a listed component which will display the appropriate page giving component usage details such as schematic diagrams, example circuits, breadboard/PCB layouts, programming code etc as appropriate.
|Sensors||DHT-11||Temperature and humidity composite sensor that outputs a calibrated digital signal of the temperature and humidity.||DHT11|
|Sensors||DS18S20||Temperature and humidity composite sensor that outputs a calibrated digital signal of the temperature and humidity.||DS18S20|
|Sensors||HX711 ACD Weigh Scale||Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) for weigh scale, connected to load cell, interfaced to PIC microcontroller.||HX711|
|Output Device||Nokia 5110 LCD||84x48 LCD module, Nokia 5110 using PCD8544 display chip||Nokia5110|
|I/O Device||MAX7221 LED Driver||Serial I/O common cathode LED display driver||MAX7221|
|I/O Device||SN74HC595 Shift Register||8-bit serial in, parallel out shift register||SN74HC595N|
|I/O Device||nRF24L01+ Radio Transciever||nRF2401 single-chip radio transceiver for the world wide 2.4 - 2.5 GHz ISM band||NRF24L01+|
|I/O Device||ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module||Wi-Fi Module with 802.11 b/g/n/e/i TCP/IP stack||ESP8266|
|Sensors||LM35||Precision Temperature Sensor - linear output 10mV/degree Celsius||LM35|
|Sensors||TCS3471||Color Light to Digital Converter||TCS3471|
|Output Device||WS2812 RGB LED||Integrated RGB LED with control circuit ("pixel" full colour chip)||WS2812|
|IC - Voltage Regulator||LM317T||3-terminal positive voltage regulator (variable 1.2-37V)||LM317T|
|IC - H-Bridge Driver||SN754410||Quadruple Half-H Driver for inductive loads (relays, solenoids, dc and stepper motors||SN754410||IC - H-Bridge Driver||A4988||A4988 microstepping motor driver interfaced to PIC microcontroller and bipolar stepper motor||A4988||Output Device||HC-SR04||HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Ranging Module interfaced to PIC microcontroller, with RS232 communication to PC||HC-SR04||Peripheral||DS1307 RTC||DS1307 Real Time Clock interfaced to PIC microcontroller, with RS232 communication to PC||DS1307||I/O Device||HC-05 Bluetooth Module||HC-05 and Android Smart Phone App used for bluetooth communications and control of PIC microcontroller circuit (LM35 temp sensor, PWM fan motor and LED controls)||HC-05||IC - Voltage Regulator||LM2596 Buck SMPS (3A 1.23-37V)||DC-DC step-down SMPS voltage regulator (variable 3A 1.23-37V)||LM2596|
|Sensors||ACS-712||Bidirectional Current Sensor||ACS712|
|Sensors||MAX-471||Bidirectional Current Sensor||MAX471|
|I/O Device||MCP-4921 DAC||12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (DAC)||MCP4921||Peripheral||SG90 Servo Motor||SG90 Servo Motoro||SG90|
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